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Other Orthodontics Articles
Are Contemporary Occlusion Concepts Valid In An Asymmetric World?

Are Contemporary Occlusion Concepts Valid In An Asymmetric World?
This study is focused on the statistical analysis of orthodontic symmetry based on pre-treatment evaluation of 121 randomly selected orthodontic patients using Anatomage 3D cephalometric Analysis of full volume (FFOV) CBCT images. Cephalometric measurements, linear and angular, were obtained from anthropologically recognized anatomical bilateral paired landmarks. Hub 3D diagnostic services performed 3D cephalometric analysis using for the study.

Author(s): Paul L Ouellette, DDS, MS;Jason P. Ouellette, DDS; Jonathan P. Ouellette, DMD
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Orthodontic Caries Control and Bleaching

Orthodontic Caries Control and Bleaching
Oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment can be facilitated by applying bleaching materials to elevate the pH of the mouth during the course of treatment. Fabrication of thermoplastic bleaching trays directly in the mouth over the braces without impressions affords a reasonable technique for the multiple trays required during the orthodontic changes.

Author(s): Van B. Haywood, DMD
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Periodontal Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics - A Description of the Surgical Technique

Periodontal Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics - A Description of the Surgical Technique
The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical surgical procedures that comprise the PAOO procedure.

Author(s): Kevin George Murphy, DDS, MS;M. Thomas Wilcko, DMD; William M. Wilcko, DMD, MS; Donald J. Ferguson, DMD, MSD
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Canine Impactions: Incidence and Management

Canine Impactions: Incidence and Management
Impacted teeth, especially canines, can cause many problems during orthodontic treatment.

Author(s): Hom-Lay Wang, DDS, MSD, PhD;Jason Cooke, DDS
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Using Orthodontic Intrusion of Abraded Incisors to Facilitate Restoration

Using Orthodontic Intrusion of Abraded Incisors to Facilitate Restoration
<p><b>Background.</b> The authors examined the effects of orthodontic intrusion of abraded incisors in adult patients to facilitate restoration, focusing specifically on changes in alveolar bone level and root length.</p> <p><b>Methods. </b>The authors analyzed records of 43 consecutive adult patients (mean age 45.9 years). They identified intrusion by means of cephalometric radiographs and bone level and root length by means of periapical radiographs. They calculated treatment differences from…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;Lucien J. Bellamy, DMD, MSD, Jake A. Weissman
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Effective Teaching Part 2

Effective Teaching Part 2
This article is the second of a two-part series on creating an effective teaching presentation. Today, any orthodontist has the capability to assemble a lecture or presentation for a group of dentists. What if you were invited to give a 1 hour presentation about orthodontics to a local dental society, study club or other specialty group? How would you structure the presentation? Will you teach or lecture? Teaching and lecturing are not synonymous terms. Anyone can stand in front of an audience and…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;M. K. Kokich
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Effective Teaching Part 1

Effective Teaching Part 1
Today most orthodontists own a laptop computer that is equipped with PowerPoint (Microsoft Corporation) or some other type of presentation software. In addition, most orthodontists use a digital clinical camera with high resolution to gather photographic records of their patients before, during, and after orthodontic treatment. So any orthodontist has the capability to assemble a lecture or presentation for a group of dentists. What if you were invited to give a one-hour presentation about orthodontics…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;M. K. Kokich
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Managing the Patient with Missing or Malformed Maxillary Central Incisors

Managing the Patient with Missing or Malformed Maxillary Central Incisors
Occasionally, orthodontists and general dentists encounter a patient who has traumatically avulsed a maxillary central incisor1 or a patient with a geminated or fused maxillary central incisor that must be removed. In either situation, a decision must be made about the eventual restoration of the anterior edentulous space. Several options exist for replacing a missing maxillary central incisor. If the tooth has been avulsed, the simplest long-term solution is to replant it. However, the success…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;Katherine E. Crabill
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Maxillary Lateral Incisor Implants: The Orthodontic Perspective

Maxillary Lateral Incisor Implants: The Orthodontic Perspective
Implants are commonly used to replace congenitally missing lateral incisors in adolescent orthodontic patients. However, these restorations are often challenging for the orthodontist, surgeon, and restorative dentist. In some patients, the space across the alveolar crest is too narrow to permit the surgeon to place the implant. Occasionally the root apices of the adjacent central incisor and canine are in close proximity. In other cases the ridge thickness could be inadequate and require augmentation.…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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Interdisciplinary Management of a Patient with a Skeletal Deformity

Interdisciplinary Management of a Patient with a Skeletal Deformity
Patients with a skeletal aberration that results in a malocclusion are not uncommon in our patient population. Several treatment options exist for these patients, from undertaking no treatment at all to performing complex orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, and restorative therapies. A practitioner cannot simply use Angles' classification of occlusal relationships (i.e., Class I, normal molar and cuspid relationship; Class II, retrognathic molar and cuspid relationship; and Class III, prognathic…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;Frank M. Spear, DDS, MSD, David P. Matthews, DDS
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Adjunctive Orchestrated Orthodontic Therapy

Adjunctive Orchestrated Orthodontic Therapy
The altruistic goal of any cosmetic dental rehabilitation is the re-establishment of a healthy maintainable aesthetic functional interface from an otherwise damaged dentition. To this end, a multi-disciplinary treatment plan is necessary to fulfill the periodontal, orthodontic, maxillofacial and cosmetic requirements for a healthy, stable dentition that has a favorable long-term prognosis. This comprehensive treatment approach strives for the constituent components of the dentition to have a proper…

Author(s): Lee H. Silverstein, DDS, MS, FACD, FICD;Gene Witkin, DDS
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Orthodontic Treatment as a Prelude to Dental Implant-Supported Restorations

Orthodontic Treatment as a Prelude to Dental Implant-Supported Restorations
Adjunctive orthodontic therapy is tooth movement that either facilitates other dental procedures necessary to control periodontal disease, or changes tooth positions that are not conducive to long-term oral health. Such therapy restores proper occlusal function and provides a healthy foundation for an aesthetic smile. When adjunctive orthodontic therapy is utilized. as part of a multidisciplinary dental team treating complex restorative cases, such as those involving the use of prosthetically guided…

Author(s): Lee H. Silverstein, DDS, MS, FACD, FICD;Marc E. Moskowitz, DDS, David Kurtzman, DDS
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Orthodontics vs Restorative Materials

Orthodontics vs Restorative Materials
Today's "cosmetically aware" adult patients are seeking out advice and opinions about oral/facial esthetics from dental professionals. Recently, many articles have been published about the "quick fixes" available in esthetic therapy. With the advent of next-generation restorative materials and the ability to predictably bond to remaining tooth structures, some authors advocate composite bonding or veneering of misaligned teeth, rather than orthodontic therapy. Composite bonding or veneering are…

Author(s): Maurice Salama, DMD
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Esthetics and Vertical Tooth Position: Orthodontic Possibilities

Esthetics and Vertical Tooth Position: Orthodontic Possibilities
Throughout the 1990s, esthetic dentistry has become a prominent part of the treatment protocol of most dentists. Patients have become more conscious of the benefits of a beautiful smile and are willing to invest time and money to improve the appearance of their teeth. Many of these patients can be treated with routine restorative procedures (crowns, composites, laminates) to achieve the desired results. However, some patients have problems with tooth position that create significant discrepancies…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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Management of Complex Orthodontic Problems

Management of Complex Orthodontic Problems
Today implants are commonly used to replace missing teeth in partially edentulous adult orthodontic patients. Because these patients are missing teeth, orthodontic mechanics may be complicated or often impossible because of insufficient anchorage. In these situations, it may be feasible to use the implant initially as an orthodontic anchor to facilitate complex tooth movement and secondarily as an abutment for a crown or fixed prosthesis. This article will discuss the ramifications and requirements…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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Esthetics: The Orthodontic-Periodontic Restorative Connection

Esthetics: The Orthodontic-Periodontic Restorative Connection
As we complete the 20th and progress into the 21st century, orthodontists worldwide are experiencing a gradual but significant change in their practices. The number of adult patients has increased substantially. Although adults cooperate better than adolescents, they present a different set of challenges for the orthodontist. Adults may have worn or abraded teeth, uneven gingival margins, missing papillae, and periodontal bone loss, all of which can jeopardize the esthetic appearance of the teeth…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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Orthodontic-Periodontal Connection in Implant Site

Orthodontic-Periodontal Connection in Implant Site
Implant-supported restorations have become an established treatment modality, well accepted by patients and clinicians. Regaining function is now routinely expected, and the focus of patient demand has shifted to aesthetics. Aesthetic restoration of the partially edentulous anterior maxilla can be particularly challenging. The learning objective of this article is to present a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment protocol, developed to establish a foundation for optimal aesthetics in implant…

Author(s): Maurice Salama, DMD;Henry Salama, DMD;Joseph Kelly, DMD
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Uncovering Labially Impacted Teeth

Uncovering Labially Impacted Teeth
The purpose of this study was to examine the esthetic and periodontal differences between two methods of uncovering labially impacted maxillary anterior teeth: the apically positioned flap and closed-eruption techniques. The sample consisted of 30 patients who were recalled a minimum of three months after orthodontic treatment of a unilateral labially impacted maxillary anterior tooth. Eighteen of the patients had undergone an apically positioned flap (APF) procedure, and the remaining twelve…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;Michael E. Vermette, DMD, MSD, David B. Kennedy, BDS, MSD
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Esthetics and Anterior Tooth Position: An Orthodontic Perspective Part 3 - Mediolateral Relationships

Esthetics and Anterior Tooth Position: An Orthodontic Perspective Part 3 - Mediolateral Relationships
Tooth position plays a vital role in anterior dental esthetics. Part I in this series discussed the interdisciplinary treatment of uneven crown lengths of the maxillary incisors. In Part II, problems with the vertical location of anterior teeth were addressed. In the final portion of this three-part series, problems in the mediolateral position of the maxillary anterior teeth are identified.

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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Esthetics and Anterior Tooth Posistion: An Orthodontic Perspective Part 2 - Vertical Position

Esthetics and Anterior Tooth Posistion: An Orthodontic Perspective Part 2 - Vertical Position
Orthodontics plays a major role in dental esthetics. In Part I of this series the evaluation and treatment of discrepancies in crown length were discussed. Part II describes the assessment and correction of vertical malposition of the maxillary anterior teeth.

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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Esthetics and Anterior Tooth Position: An Orthodontic Perspective Part 1 - Crown Length

Esthetics and Anterior Tooth Position: An Orthodontic Perspective Part 1 - Crown Length
Orthodontics plays a major role in dental esthetics, other than aligning malposed anterior teeth. Factors such as anterior crown length, crown width, midline proportions, tooth angulations, and vertical tooth positions may be critical to anterior dental esthetics and treatable with orthodontic therapy. This article discusses the evaluation and treatment of discrepancies in anterior crown length.

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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Adjunctive Role of Orthodontic Therapy

Adjunctive Role of Orthodontic Therapy
Orthodontic tooth movement may be a substantial benefit to the adult periorestorative patient. Many adults who seek routine restorative dentistry have problems with tooth malposition that compromise their ability to clean and maintain their dentitions. If these individuals also are susceptible to periodontal disease, tooth malposition may be an exacerbating factor that could cause premature loss of specific teeth. Orthodontic appliances have become smaller, less noticeable, and easier to maintain…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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Interdisciplinary Management of Anterior Guidance

Interdisciplinary Management of Anterior Guidance
A common objective of anterior restorative dentistry is to establish incisal guidance between the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth to disclude the posterior teeth during protrusive mandibular movement.1-4 However, this goal is difficult to achieve in a patient with significant wear or abrasion and excess anterior overjet. How does the restorative dentist provide for immediate incisal guidance when the patient has short, abraded anterior teeth and a 6-mm overjet? This is a common dilemma for…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;Frank M. Spear, DDS, MSD
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Orthodontic Microsurgery: A New Surgically Guided Technique for Dental Movement

Orthodontic Microsurgery: A New Surgically Guided Technique for Dental Movement
Eight patients with malocclusions were treated with a new orthodontic-surgical technique that reduces the duration of treatment compared to conventional techniques. The monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament distraction (MTDLD) technique combines two different dental movements that work separately but simultaneously on opposite root surfaces. On the root surface corresponding to the direction of movement, vertical and horizontal microsurgical corticotomies are performed around each tooth root…

Author(s): Tomaso Vercellotti, MD, DDS;Andrea Podesta, MD, DDS
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Interrelationship of Othodontics and Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry

Interrelationship of Othodontics and Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry
Today, orthodontics is not just for children and adolescents. For the past two decades, increasing numbers of adults have been referred to orthodontists to correct their malocclusions. Adults are usually wonderful patients, because they are cooperative, clean their teeth, show up for appointments, and are appreciative of the clinician's efforts. However, adults may have problems other than malposed teeth and jaws that make their onhodontic treatment more challenging. Whereas children and adolescents have…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;Vincent O. Kokich
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Impacted Teeth: Orthodontic and Surgical Considerations

Impacted Teeth: Orthodontic and Surgical Considerations
Most permanent teeth erupt into occlusion. In some individuals, however, the permanent teeth may fail to erupt and become impacted within the alveolus. When this lack of eruption occurs, two alternative treatment plans are possible. The impacted tooth could be extracted; the removal of the tooth, however, might require the placement of an implant or fixed prosthesis to replace the missing tooth. The other alternative is to uncover the tooth surgically and move it into the dental arch orthodontically.…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;David P. Matthews
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Maxillary Lateral Incisor Implants: Planning with the Aid of Orthodontics

Maxillary Lateral Incisor Implants: Planning with the Aid of Orthodontics
Implants are commonly used to replace congenitally missing lateral incisors in adolescent orthodontic patients. However, these restorations are often challenging for the orthodontist, surgeon, and restorative dentist. In some patients, the space across the alveolar crest is too narrow to permit the surgeon to place the implant. Occasionally the root apices of the adjacent central incisor and canine are in close proximity. In other cases the ridge thickness could be inadequate and require augmentation.…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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Congenitally Missing Mandibular Second Premolars

Congenitally Missing Mandibular Second Premolars
<b>Introduction:</b> Congenital absence of mandibular second premolars affects many orthodontic patients. The orthodontist must make the proper decision at the appropriate time regarding management of the edentulous space. These spaces can be closed or left open. <b>Implications:</b> If the space will be left open for an eventual restoration, the keys during orthodontic treatment are to create the correct amount of space and to leave the alveolar ridge in an ideal condition for a future restoration.…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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The Role of Orthodontics as an Adjunct to Periodontal Therapy

The Role of Orthodontics as an Adjunct to Periodontal Therapy
Orthodontic tooth movement may be a substantial benefit to the adult periorestorative patient. Many adults who seek rout ine resto rative dentistry have problems with tooth malposition that compromise their ability to adequately clean and maintain their dentitions. If these individuals also are susceptible to periodontal disease, tooth malposition could be an exacerbating factor that could cause premature loss of spedfic teeth. Orthodontic appliances have become smaller, less noticeable, and easier…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD
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