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Pediatrics Articles
Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of the Maxillary Anterior Dentition

Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of the Maxillary Anterior Dentition
The information presented in this article can be clinically applied to reestablish the proper intratooth GZPs of the maxillary anterior teeth during periodontal crown lengthening or root coverage procedures. In addition, the intra-arch gingival level of the lateral incisor gingival zenith relative to the adjacent central and canine teeth can be appropriately established.

Author(s): Stephen J. Chu, DMD, MSD, CDT;Dennis P. Tarnow, DDS;Christian F.J. Stappert, DDS, MS, PhD, Priv-Doz;Jocelyn H-P. Tan, DDS
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A Technique for Restoring Class V Caries in Primary Canines

A Technique for Restoring Class V Caries in Primary Canines
This article describes a technique for restoring Class V carious lesions in the primary dentition. The discussion will include the treatment of aprismatic enamel in primary teeth, bonding to dentin, and the restorative techniques that are available for composite bonding. A case report is presented that utilizes several modern techniques for restoring Class V lesions.

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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Treating Abnormal Frenum Attachments in Infants

Treating Abnormal Frenum Attachments in Infants
Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a relatively common condition in newborns. Affected infants have difficulty latching onto the breast nipple and thus have inadequate milk transfer, and subsequent maternal nipple pain, resulting in untimely weaning. An abnormal maxillary labial frenum may prevent proper latching onto the breast nipple, also preventing the infant to obtain adequate breast milk. The author will illustrate using case reports how the frenectomy procedure can be performed utilizing an Erbium laser.

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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Esthetic Restoration of Discolored Primary Incisors

Esthetic Restoration of Discolored Primary Incisors
restoring primary teeth can be a strenuous task for many dentists who would like to have an esthetic, easy-to-use and relatively quick restoration for children. but, the restoration of carious, fractured or discolored primary incisors gives the dentist the satisfaction of knowing that he/she has restored the smile and self-confidence of a growing child. this article describes a technique which is relatively easy and produces a beautiful outcome in a relatively short time. the author has used the…

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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The Esthetic Space Maintainer

The Esthetic Space Maintainer
This article describes why it is important to replace the maxillary primary incisors when they are prematurely lost in children. The consequences of not replacing these teeth in relation to speech, esthetics, and self-image considerations are provided. A step-by-step description is presented for the fabrication of an esthetic appliance, which can be easily made to replace missing maxillary primary incisors. In addition, information is presented on when and how to remove the esthetic appliance.

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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Pediatric Sialithiasis

Pediatric Sialithiasis
A sialolith represents a precipitation of calcium salts around a nidus of desquamated epithelial cells, foreign bodies, bacterial by-products, microorganisms, or mucous plug. The most common location of salivary calculi is the submandibular gland. Although sialadenitis is relatively common in the pediatric population, sialolithiasis is not. We present a case report of a healthy 7-year-old male who presented to the office with sialolithiasis of the distal duct of the left submandibular gland discovered…

Author(s): Lee H. Silverstein, DDS, MS, FACD, FICD;Lee M. Whiesides, DMD, MMSc
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Behavior Management of the Special Child

Behavior Management of the Special Child
Children with disabling conditions can be treated in a private dental office with modifications of those techniques used to treat children who do not have handicapping conditions

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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The Erbium Laser: The Star Wars of Dentistry

The Erbium Laser: The Star Wars of Dentistry
Dentistry has a new weapon in the fight against tooth decay. This "light saber" of dentistry is the erbium laser. The dental laser is the latest in modern innovations for the 21st century. The erbium lasers have proven safe and effective for the removal of tooth decay and cavity preparation in addition to many soft tissue and hard-tissue surgical procedures. The Food and Drug Administration has approved the erbium laser for marketing in the United States as of 1997. The erbium laser offers an alternative…

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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Use of Midazolam to Modify Children's Behovior in the Dental Setting

Use of Midazolam to Modify Children's Behovior in the Dental Setting
One of the most common challenges that the dentist who treats children faces is the behavior management of the difficult child. Most children react favorably to the traditional behavior management technique of "tell-show-do." Some children are not accepting of treatment due to fear, pain, anxiety, maturity or a combination of these. Pharmacologic methods of modifying children's behavior are sometimes necessary to accomplish the necessary treatment for the child. Nitrous oxide is a commonly used…

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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