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Alveolar Ridge Preservation and Reconstruction Alveolar Ridge Preservation and Reconstruction

Author(s):

Henry Salama, DMD;Jay S. Seibert

Date Added:

1/1/2000


Summary:

Periodontal plastic surgery procedures designed to reconstruct deformed, partially edentulous residual ridges were introduced to the dental profession between 1971 and 1986. They have been revised and refined to their current state of development, where they now occupy a major place in the reconstructive armamentarium. Before these concepts were developed, it was generally believed that it was impossible to surgically reconstruct deformities in the partially edentulous ridge. Deformities were filled with prosthetic materials in an effort to restore jaw contours. This resulted in the use of pontic teeth that were frequently longer than their natural counterparts or the use of a flange of simulated gingiva placed over pontic teeth of the proper length. Prostheses of this type were acceptable from a functional standpoint, but all too frequently they lacked realism and were readily detectable when patients smiled. Reconstructive plastic surgery procedures enable the dentist to restore the hard and soft tissues of the alveolar ridge to their former dimensions and give the restorative dentist an opportunity to provide patients with fixed prostheses that are truly aesthetic and enhance dentofacial cosmetics. Techniques incorporating the principles of guided bone regeneration and soft-tissue expansion have been developed recently to aid in the reconstruction of the osseous tissues of the residual ridge and/or to augment the volume of bone necessary to permit the successful placement of implant fixtures. The research and development associated with guided bone regeneration procedures has provided dentistry with a major breakthrough in the science and art of reconstructive surgery. The development of new materials and technologies for guided tissue regeneration has made a major impact on extending the scope of therapeutic horizons in dentistry.

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