Amalgam has been a durable successful dental restorative material; however this material has recently come under question due to its mercury content and disposal. Composite resin materials range from flowable to highly filled condensable type viscosities. There are many factors that influence the success of posterior composite resin restorations. This presentation will identify the factors that limit success (size, patient type, caries risk, shrinkage, curing light) and the materials that can be successfully used to restore posterior teeth. Beginning with flowable materials and their clinical application the presentation will discuss the open sandwich technique, use of flowable posterior restorations, sectional matrices and fluoride, calcium and phosphate releasing materials.